Longer-Term Effects of Remote Patient Management Following Hospital Discharge After Acute Systolic Heart Failure: The Randomized E-INH Trial

Background: The randomized INH (Interdisciplinary Network Heart Failure) trial (N = 715) reported that 6 months’ remote patient management (RPM) (HeartNetCare-HF) did not reduce the primary outcome (time to all-cause death/rehospitalization) vs usual care (UC) in patients discharged after admission for acute heart failure, but suggested lower mortality and better quality of life in the RPM group.

Objectives: The Extended (E)-INH trial investigated the effects of 18 months’ HeartNetCare-HF on the same primary outcome in an expanded population (N = 1,022) and followed survivors up to 60 months (primary outcome events) or up to 120 months (mortality) after RPM termination.

Methods: Eligible patients aged ≥18 years, hospitalized for acute heart failure, and with predischarge ejection fraction ≤40% were randomized to RPM (RPM+UC; n = 509) or control (UC; n = 513). Follow-up visits were every 6 months during RPM, and then at 36, 60, and 120 months.

Results: The primary outcome did not differ between groups at 18 months (60.7% [95% CI: 56.5%-65.0%] vs 61.2% [95% CI: 57.0%-65.4%]) or 60 months (78.1% [95% CI: 74.4%-81.6%] vs 82.8% [95% CI: 79.5%-86.0%]). At 60 and 120 months, all-cause mortality was lower in patients previously undergoing RPM (41.1% [95% CI: 37.0%-45.5%] vs 47.4% [95% CI: 43.2%-51.8%]; P = 0.040 and 64.0% [95% CI: 59.8%-68.2%] vs 69.6% [95% CI: 65.6%-73.5%]; P = 0.019). At all visits, health-related quality of life was better in patients exposed to HeartNetCare-HF vs UC.

Conclusions: Although 18 months’ HeartNetCare-HF did not significantly reduce the primary outcome of death or rehospitalization at 60 months, lower 120-month mortality in patients previously undergoing HeartNetCare-HF suggested beneficial longer-term effects, although the possibility of a chance finding remains.